Open source has shown its potential to have a major impact in software development. It changes many of the basic rules of software development and therefore provides new types of possibilities for different actors, including e.g. service providers, software developers and system integrators. Thus, open source software not only is challenging the conventional ways of developing software but also provides a basis for new businesses and business models.

In order to achieve a comprehensive view of the complexity of utilizing open source software (OSS) in business from the standpoint of different kinds of companies, we need competencies representing several scientific disciplines.

The research project ”Managing OSS As an Integrated Part of Business (OSSI)” developed a management framework by examining the phenomena from the perspectives of sociology, technology and business. The business perspective was examined further in the research project in terms of legal aspects, economics, business models, competitive strategy, and value networks.

Since the role of the developer communities is highly important in open source software, the study took a community-based approach and studied four Open Source communities – Debian, Eclipse + Laika, GNOME, MySQL – and the networks and business models that have evolved around them.

Publications top

Final report:

Open Source Software Management Framework, pdf 2.4 MB

OSSI Reports:

Helander, N. & Antikainen, M. (eds.) 2007. Essays on OSS Practices and Sustainablity, e-Business Reserach Center Research Reports 36. Tampere University of Technology & University of Technology

Helander, N. & Mäntymäki, M. (eds.) 2006. Empirical Insights on Open Source Software Business. e-Business Research Center Research Reports 34. Tampere University of Technology & University of Technology

Helander, N. & Martin-Vahvanen, H. (eds.) 2006. Multidisciplinary Views to Open Source Software Business. e-Business Research Center Research Reports 33. Tampere University of Technology & University of Technology

Journal Articles:

Mikkonen, T., Vadén, T. & Vainio, N. 2007. The Protestant ethic strikes back: Open source developers and the ethic of capitalism. First Monday, volume 12, number 2 (February 2007).

Oksanen, V. & Välimäki, M. 2006. Free Software and Copyright Enforcement – A Tool for Global Copyright Policy? Knowledge, Technology & Policy Winter, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp. 101-112.

Mikko Välimäki. 2006. Copyleft Licensing and EC Competition Law. European Competition Law Review 3/2006. Vol. 27, Issue 3

Välimäki, M. 2005. Software Interoperability and Intellectual Property Policy in Europe. European Review on Political Technologies. Dec. 2005

Articles in Conference Proceedings:

Helander, N. & Rissanen, T. 2006. Value-creating Networks Approach to Open Source Software Business Models. Seppä, M. Hannula, M. Järvelin, A-M, Kujala, J. Ruohonen, M. & Tiainen, T. (eds.). Frontiers of e-Business Research 2005. Tampere University of Technology & University of Tampere

Järvensivu, J., Kosola, M., Kuusipalo, M., Reijula, P. and Mikkonen, T. Developing an Open Source Integrated Development Environment for a Mobile Device. International Conference on Software Engineering Advances, Tahiti, French Polynesia, Oct. 29.-Nov.3., 2006.

Mäkinen, S., Seppänen, M. & Nokelainen, T. 2005. Resources and Dynamic Capabilities in Business Model Concepts: A Review of the State-of-the-Art.  The 25th  SMS Annual International Conference. Orlando, Florida. USA. October 23rd- 26th, 2005

Mäkinen, S. & Seppänen, M. 2006. Strategic Management of Exploiting Technological Opportunities: Integrating Strategy to Operations with Business Model Concept. The 15^th International Conference for Management of Technology Annual Conference 2006. Beijing, China. May 22nd – 26th, 2006.

Oksanen, V., Välimäki, M. & Laine, J. 2005. An Empirical Look at the Problems of Open Source Adoption in Finnish Municipalities. Seventh International Conference on Electronic Commerce, China

Puhakka, M. & Jungman, H. 2006. Evaluation and Valuation of Open Source Software Companies: A Venture Capitalist’ Perspective. Seppä, M. Hannula, M. Järvelin, A-M, Kujala, J. Ruohonen, M. & Tiainen, T. (eds.). Frontiers of e-Business Research 2005. Tampere University of Technology & University of Tampere

Seppänen, M. & Mäkinen, S. 2005. Business model concepts: a review with case illustration. The proceedings of the International Engineering Management Conference 2005. St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada. 11.-14.9.2005.  pp. 376-380

Seppänen, M. & Mäkinen, S. 2006. Conceptual Schema of Resources for Business Models. The 3rd IEEE International Conference on Management of Innovation and Technology, Singapore, June 21-23, 2006.

Other Publications:

Aaltonen T. and Jokinen J. (2006). Demography of Linux Kernel Developers. Institute of Software Systems. Report 41. Tampere University of Technology.

Puhakka, M. 2006. The Future is Open – Are You and Your Company ready? Ariadne Capital Journal. Version 6. Edition 1.


Puhakka, M. Open Source Is Taking Over the World, or Is It? – Some Reflections on Both Successes and Failures. Open Mind, Tampere, 11.11.2005

Puhakka, M Entrepreneurship and Venture Capital 2005, V2C forum, Tampere, 1.12.2005

Master Theses

Luoma, I. On Software Engineering in Open Source Software: A Survey of Selected Projects. 2007. M.Sc. Thesis, Tampere University of Technology.

Myllärniemi, J. Structures and Operations of Open Source Networks. 2007. M.Sc. Thesis, Tampere University of Technology.

Timo Aaltonen

Dr. Tech. Timo Aaltonen is a reseach scientist in Instute of Software Systems Laboratory at Tampere University of Technology. Aaltonen has been working for the research group DisCo and is currently preparing his doctoral thesis on finding errors in different phases of software lifecycle. The dissertation will take place in November 2005. Aaltonen has been a member of the program committee of ICECCS conferences 2004 and 2005.

Tel. +358 3 3115 3951

Nina Helander

Nina Helander is a senior researcher in The Institute of Business Information Management at Tampere University of Technology. Her research interests are related to software business, in particular open source software and software components from a managerial point of view. She is especially interested in studying the relationships between different OSS network actors and the logic of value creation of these actors. Helander has publications on value creation, business networks, software component business and OSS business models. In her doctoral dissertation, Helander studied software business from value-creating network perspective.

GSM +358 50 400 4275

Heli Koski

Heli Koski is affiliated with Helsinki School of Economics as Professor (Acting) of Technology Management and Policy and the Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA). Previously, she has been affiliated with the London School of Economics and worked as a special advisor of the EU Commissioner for Enterprise and Information Society, Erkki Liikanen. She has also been a visiting scholar in Stanford University, Free University of Amsterdam and Stern School of Business, New York University. She has published articles in various books and journals such as Review of Indusrial Organization, Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Information Economics and Policy, Economics of Innovation and New Technology and Research Policy. Current research of Dr Koski concentrates into the analysis of the diffusion and usage of new technologies, entrepreneurial business strategies and competitive conditions in network markets, and the policy implications of these developments.

In OSSI project Heli Koski is responsible for the economics research.

Tel. +358 9 431 38663

Juha Laine

Professor Juha Laine is the responsible leader of the OSSI-project research team at Helsinki University of Technology (HUT). Juha Laine holds a professorship of Digital Economy in Software Business and Engineering Institute (SoberIT) at HUT. Professor Laine has Ph.D in law from Helsinki University. Before coming to HUT Juha Laine worked several years at Helsinki School of Economics, among other things as an associate professor of international contract law and as a researcher at Electronic Commerce Institute.

At SoberIT professor Laine is responsible for the Technology Law Program. Professor Juha Laine’s research team at SoberIT has just completed the RIPOS – project, which addressed legal, business societal aspects of open source software. Professor Laine’s special research interests are legal aspects of electronic markets and electronic commerce, eGovernment, electronic contracts, intellectual property rights and consumer protection.


Tommi Mikkonen

Tommi Mikkonen is a professor of software engineering at Tampere U of Tech. Being a head of the Institute of Software Systems since 2002, he has been responsible for numerous research projects as well as supervised a number of thesis works. Currently, Mikkonen is responsible for the startup of Laika open source community (, which has been decided to be used as a sample community in project OSSI.

GSM +358 40 849 0749

Jussi Myllärniemi

Jussi Myllärniemi works as a researcher assistant in The Institute of Business Information Management at Tampere University of Technology. He started his M.Sc. thesis in summer 2006. His reseach interests are structures of open source networks. Besides doing his thesis, he also participates in the education the department offers.

GSM +358 40 5463398

Saku Mäkinen

Saku Mäkinen is a Professor of Technology Management at the Institute of Industrial Management, Tampere University of Technology (TUT), Finland. Dr. Mäkinen has been previously a Fellow at the Department of Marketing, Faculty of Business Administration, National University of Singapore. He received his M.Sc. in Electrical Engineering and PhD in Technology Strategy, both from TUT, Finland.

His research interests include technology and innovation strategy and management, complexity theory and its applications in management sciences, and industry evolution. He has taught under-graduate, graduate and doctoral courses in various subjects in marketing, strategy, technology management, innovation management, and R&D. He is the Director of Center for Innovation and Technology Research (CITER,, a research team at TUT.

In OSSI project, he studies competitive strategies of participant firms in the circumtances of open source.

Tel. +358 3 3115 3733
GSM +358 40 544 1088

Ville Oksanen

Ville Oksanen works currently at Helsinki Univercity of Technology as a researcher. He was a visiting scholar at UC-Berkeley 2002 and is now preparing his Ph.D. on the economic rationality of copyright system. Mr. Oksanen is currently the chairman of Electronic Frontier Finland, which he co-founded in 2001. He’s also co-chairing European Digital Right’s IP working group and has been EDRI’s representative at several WIPO meetings. Oksanen is also a partner in a small law firm, which is specialized in open source.


Mikko Puhakka

Currently Mikko Puhakka is researching open source at Helsinki University of Technology, initially at RIPOS (Risks and Prospects of Open Source) project which was co-funded by TEKES and a number of industry players including Nokia, IBM and Vaisala.

Mikko is a founder of Holtron in 1994. Since Holtron’s establishment Mikko has carried out numerous advisory assignments to technology companies as well as special assignments to government on innovation policy as well as on challenges of the information economy. Further he has managed several venture capital investments including an investment into MySQL, the leading open source database company in 2001.

Mikko is well known in the technology community in Finland and the Nordic countries, speaking regularly at various industry and academic events. Besides the research work Mikko continues to advise select clients from both private and public sector. Further more specifically related to Open Source Mikko is an advisor in the initiative for the Finnish Centre for Open Source Software (COSS).

GSM +358 500 200 200

Marko Seppä

Marko Seppä is Founding Director of eBRC, the joint research centre of the Tampere University of Technology and the University of Tampere, established for limited life (2001-2005) as part of the eTampere program (a local pilot of eEurope), in 2001, to understand business in knowledge society. In 1997-2000, he worked on his doctorate, on a part time basis, at the University of Jyväskylä. During 1986-1996, Marko Seppä served in the venture capital industry. After apprenticeship years at Panostaja Group, he established their Russian market arm, FVC, as founding Managing Director in 1991. Later, he took FVC through MBO and expansion to the Baltic markets, and led the partnership until partial sale to Thominvest Oy. Since 1997, he has practiced venture capital part-time, via his private company, as well as served as co-entrepreneur in a number of knowledge intensive ventures. His primary research interests cover growth venture strategies, knowledge capital investing, and the venture-to-capital (V2C) process.

GSM +358 400 63 8780

Marko Seppänen

Marko Seppänen is a Researcher and holds a M.Sc. (2001) from Industrial Engineering and Management. Presently he works for Center for Innovation and Technology Research (CITER, at Tampere University of Technology. He has several years of experience in research and teaching in the areas of technology management, management accounting and project management and has published actively on these topics.

His current research interests are business models in competitive environments, which is also focus on OSSI project.

Tel. +358 3 3115 3655
GSM +358 40 588 4080

Tere Vadén

Assistant professor, docent Tere Vadén takes an interest in the amazing mix of social and technological innovation emerging from Open Source communities. Vadén’s background is in philosophy and cognitive science, and his research questions include the hacker mind-set and values, as well the new visions of open information society development. He has published on the nature of digitality and ethical questions of information technology.

In his freetime, Vadén supports the activities of the Electronic Frontier Foundation Finland, among other things.

GSM +358 50 4372644

Niklas Vainio

Researcher Niklas Vainio has a background in philosophy, computer science and software development, and he is interested in the consumer-prosumer transition, philosophy of technology and gender aspects of information technology. His previous research has been on the benefits of free and open source software in developing countries and Internet-mediated citizen participation.

In OSSI, Niklas studies the sociological aspects of free and open source software communities, their structures of decision making and collaboration, and their values and ethical principles.

GSM +358 50 342 9495

Mikko Välimäki

Mikko Välimäki, Ph.D., LL.M., teaches technology law at the Helsinki University of Technology, Finland. He has consulted especially software companies and is the author of a book on open source licensing (available at Previously Mr. Välimäki has been a visiting scholar at the University of California, Berkeley. He is also a co-founder and former chairman of Electronic Frontier Finland.


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